Consider writing updates in a state monad where the state contains deeply nested structures. As our running example we will consider a state containing multiple “wallets”, where each wallet has multiple “accounts”, and each account has multiple “addresses”. Suppose we want to write an update that changes one of the fields in a particular address. If the address cannot be found, we want a precise error message that distinguishes between the address itself not being found, or one of its parents (the account, or the wallet) not being found. Without the help of suitable abstractions, we might end up writing something monstrous like:

```
setUsed :: AddrId -> Update UnknownAddr DB ()
@(accId@(walletId, accIx), addrIx) = do
setUsed addrId<- get
db -- find the wallet
case Map.lookup walletId db of
Nothing ->
$ UnknownAddrParent
throwError $ UnknownAccParent
$ UnknownWalletId walletId
Just wallet ->
-- find the account
case Map.lookup accIx wallet of
Nothing ->
$ UnknownAddrParent
throwError $ UnknownAccId accId
Just acc ->
-- find the address
case Map.lookup addrIx acc of
Nothing ->
$ UnknownAddrId addrId
throwError Just (addr, _isUsed) -> do
let acc' = Map.insert addrIx (addr, True) acc
= Map.insert accIx acc' wallet
wallet' = Map.insert walletId wallet' db
db' put db'
```

In the remainder of this blog post we will show how we can develop some composable abstractions that will allow us to rewrite this as

```
setUsed :: AddrId -> Update UnknownAddr DB ()
=
setUsed addrId id addrId $
zoomAddress $ \(addr, _isUsed) -> (addr, True) modify
```

for an appropriate definition of `zoomAddress`

given later.

## Zooming

To obtain compositionality, we want to be able to lift updates on a smaller context (such as a particular wallet) to a larger context (the entire state). In order to do that, we will need a way to get the smaller context from the larger, and to be able to lift modifications of the smaller context to modifications of the larger context. This is of course precisely the definition of a lens, and so we arrive at the following signature:

`zoom :: Lens' st st' -> State st' a -> State st a`

For the purposes of the first part this blog post we will define `State`

in a somewhat unusual way as

```
newtype Result a st = Result { getResult :: (a, st) }
type State st a = st -> Result a st
```

It will become evident why we choose this definition soon; for now, if you squint a bit you can hopefully see that this is equivalent to the state monad we all know and love. A somewhat naive way to write `zoom`

is

```
zoom :: Lens' st st' -> State st' a -> State st a
= fmap updSmall $ f (large ^. l)
zoom l f large where
= large & l .~ small' updSmall small'
```

This definition clearly demonstrates what we said above: we use the lens to first get the small state from the large, run the update on that smaller state, and finally use the lens once more to update the larger state with the new value of the smaller state, relying on the fact that `Result`

is a `Functor`

.

If we are using lenses in Van Laarhoven representation, however, we can actually write this in a more direct way. Expanding synoynms, we get

```
zoom :: (forall f. Functor f => (st' -> f st')
-> (st -> f st))
-> (st' -> Result a st')
-> (st -> Result a st)
```

Note how if we take advantage of our somewhat unusual representation of the state monad, we can instantiate `f`

to `Result a`

, so that lens already gives us precisely what we need! In other words, we can rewrite `zoom`

as simply

```
zoom :: Lens' st st' -> State st' a -> State st a
= id zoom
```

## Dealing with failure

In order to deal with missing values, we need a variation on `zoom`

:

`zoomM :: Lens' st (Maybe st') -> State st' a -> State st (Maybe a)`

We can write this in a naive way again, being very explicit about what’s happening:

```
zoomM :: Lens' st (Maybe st') -> State st' a -> State st (Maybe a)
=
zoomM l f large case large ^. l of
Nothing -> Result (Nothing, large)
Just small -> bimap Just (updSmall . Just) $ f small
where
= large & l .~ small' updSmall small'
```

As before, we first use the lens to get the smaller state from the larger. This may now fail; if it does, we return `Nothing`

as the result along with the unchanged state. If the smaller state does exist, we run the update on that smaller state, and then wrap its result in `Just`

; this relies on the fact that `Result`

is a `Bifunctor`

. In case you haven’t seen that class before, it’s the “obvious” generalization of `Functor`

to datatypes with two type arguments:

```
class Bifunctor p where
bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> p a c -> p b d
```

The instance for `Result`

is easy:

```
instance Bifunctor Result where
Result (a, st)) = Result (f a, g st) bimap f g (
```

As before, however, we can use the lens in a more direct way. Expanding synonyms once again, we get:

```
zoomM :: (forall f. Functor f => (Maybe st' -> f (Maybe st'))
-> (st -> f st))
-> (st' -> Result a st')
-> (st -> Result (Maybe a) st)
```

If we line up the result of the lens with the result we want from `zoomM`

, we see that we must pick `Result (Maybe a)`

for `f`

; all that remains is writing a suitable wrapper:

```
liftMaybe :: Biapplicative p
=> (st -> p a st) -> Maybe st -> p (Maybe a) (Maybe st)
Nothing = bipure Nothing Nothing
liftMaybe _ Just st) = bimap Just Just $ f st liftMaybe f (
```

This relies on `Result`

being `Biapplicative`

, which is again the “obvious” generalization of `Applicative`

to datatypes with two arguments:

```
class Bifunctor p => Biapplicative p where
bipure :: a -> b -> p a b
(<<*>>) :: p (a -> b) (c -> d) -> p a c -> p b d
```

The instance for `Result`

again is straight-forward:

```
instance Biapplicative Result where
= Result (a, st)
bipure a st Result (f, g) <<*>> Result (a, st) = Result (f a, g st)
```

This out of the way, we can now define `zoomM`

as

```
zoomM :: Lens' st (Maybe st') -> State st' a -> State st (Maybe a)
= l . liftMaybe zoomM l
```

## Generalizing

So far we have been using a non-standard definition of the state monad. In this section we will see how we can avoid doing that and, more importantly, how we can write our zooming combinators in such a way that they can be used also in the reader monad.

Let’s define a monad for updates and a monad for queries using the standard monad transformers:

```
newtype Update e st a = Update {
runUpdate :: StateT st (Except e) a
}deriving ( Functor, Applicative
Monad, MonadState st, MonadError e )
,
newtype Query e st a = Query {
runQuery :: ReaderT st (Except e) a
}deriving ( Functor, Applicative
Monad, MonadReader st, MonadError e ) ,
```

We want to be able to “zoom” in either of these two monads. We saw above that the key to be able to use the lens directly is the ability to express our update as a function

`st -> f st`

for some suitable functor `f`

. For `zoom`

we picked `Result a`

, for `zoomM`

we picked `Result (Maybe a)`

. The choice of `Result`

, however, was specific to our concrete definition of `State`

. If we want to generalize, we need to generalize away from this type:

```
class Biapplicative (Result z) => Zoomable z where
type Result z :: * -> * -> *
wrap :: (st -> Result z a st) -> z st a
unwrap :: z st a -> (st -> Result z a st)
```

In this type class we introduce a type *family* `Result`

that we can instantiate to different types for different monads; `wrap`

and `unwrap`

are necessary because unlike our bespoke `State`

monad definition above, the conventional definition of the state monad is *isomorphic*, but not *equal*, to a function from a state to a state. We saw above why we need `Result z`

to be `Biapplicative`

.

`Zoomable`

instance for `Update`

In order to be able to define a `Zoomable`

instance for `Update`

, we need to introduce a type that captures the result of an update:

```
newtype UpdResult e a st = UpdResult {
getUpdResult :: Except e (a, st)
}
```

Defining the `Zoomable`

instance for `UpdResult`

is now easy:

```
instance Zoomable (Update e) where
type Result (Update e) = UpdResult e
= coerce
wrap = coerce unwrap
```

Note that `wrap`

and `unwrap`

are simply `coerce`

; in other words, they exist only to satisfy the type checker, but have no runtime cost.

`Zoomable`

instances for `Query`

The nice thing is that we can just as easily give a `Zoomable`

instance for `Query`

. The only difference is that the result of the query does not have a final state:

```
newtype QryResult e a st = QryResult {
getQryResult :: Except e a
}
```

The `Zoomable`

instance is just as simple:

```
instance Zoomable (Query e) where
type Result (Query e) = QryResult e
= coerce
wrap = coerce unwrap
```

`Functor`

from `Bifunctor`

If we now try to define `zoom`

for any `Zoomable`

monad, we find that we get stuck very quickly: in order to be able to apply the lens, we need `Result z a`

to be a functor; but all we know is that `Result z`

is a bifunctor. Starting from ghc 8.6 we could use quantified constraints and write

```
class ( Biapplicative (Result z)
forall a. Functor (Result z a)
,
) => Zoomable z where (..)
```

to insist that `Result z a`

must be a functor for *any* choice of `a`

. We could also add a `Functor (Result z a)`

constraint to the type of `zoom`

itself, but this gives `zoom`

a more messy signature than it needs to have.

If we want to be compatible with older versions of ghc but still keep the nicer signature, we can take advantage of the fact that if a datatype is a bifunctor it must also be a functor:

```
newtype FromBi p a st = WrapBi { unwrapBi :: p a st }
instance Bifunctor p => Functor (FromBi p a) where
fmap f (WrapBi x) = WrapBi (second f x)
```

### Generalizing the zoom operators

We now have everything we need to give the generalized definitions of the zoom operators. In fact, the definition is almost dictated by the types:

```
zoom :: Zoomable z => Lens' st st' -> z st' a -> z st a
= wrap $ \st -> unwrapBi $ l (WrapBi . unwrap k) st zoom l k
```

Although this *looks* more complicated than the definition we have before, note that

```
zoom l k-- definition
== wrap $ \st -> unwrapBi $ l (WrapBi . unwrap k) st
-- wrap and unwrap are both 'coerce'
== \st -> unwrapBi $ l (WrapBi . k) st
-- unwrapBi and WrapBi are just newtype wrappers
== \st -> l k st
-- eta-reduce
== l k
```

In other words, modulo newtype wrapping, we *still* have `zoom = id`

. The definition of `zoomM`

is similar to what we had above also:

```
zoomM :: Zoomable z
=> Lens' st (Maybe st')
-> z st' a
-> z st (Maybe a)
= wrap $ \st -> unwrapBi $
zoomM l k WrapBi . liftMaybe (unwrap k)) st l (
```

The proof that this is equivalent to simply `l (liftMaybe k)`

is left as a simple exercise for the reader.

Finally, we can define a useful variation on `zoomM`

that uses a fallback when the smaller context was not found:

```
zoomDef :: (Zoomable z, Monad (z st))
=> Lens' st (Maybe st')
-> z st a -- ^ When not found
-> z st' a -- ^ When found
-> z st a
= zoomMaybe l k `catchNothing` def zoomDef l def k
```

where

```
catchNothing :: Monad m => m (Maybe a) -> m a -> m a
= act >>= maybe fallback return catchNothing act fallback
```

## Using the combinators

We will now go back to the example from the introduction and show how we can write some domain-specific zoom operators using the building blocks we just defined.

### Setup

The example is a state consisting of multiple wallets, where each wallet has multiple accounts, and each account has multiple addresses. For the sake of this blog post it doesn’t really matter what “wallets”, “accounts” and “addresses” are, and we will model them very simply as

```
type DB = Map WalletId Wallet
type Wallet = Map AccIx Account
type Account = Map AddrIx Address
type Address = (String, Bool)
```

The top-level state is a mapping from wallet *IDs* to wallets, but a wallet is a mapping from account *indices* to accounts. The reason for the difference is that we will reserve the term account *ID* for the combination of a wallet ID and an account index, and similarly for addresses:

```
type AccIx = Int
type AddrIx = Int
type WalletId = Int
type AccId = (WalletId, AccIx)
type AddrId = (AccId, AddrIx)
```

Finally, the requirements stated that we wanted to distinguish between, say, an address not found because although the account exists, it doesn’t have that particular address, and an address not found because its enclosing account (or indeed wallet) does not exist:

```
data UnknownWallet = UnknownWalletId WalletId
data UnknownAcc = UnknownAccId AccId
| UnknownAccParent UnknownWallet
data UnknownAddr = UnknownAddrId AddrId
| UnknownAddrParent UnknownAcc
```

### Zooming

Ok, definitions done, we can now define our zoom combinators. Our initial attempt might be something like

```
zoomWallet :: WalletId
-> Update e Wallet a
-> Update e DB a
```

If the wallet ID was not found, however, we want to be able to throw an `UnknownWallet`

error. We could change the signature to

```
zoomWallet :: WalletId
-> Update UnknownWallet Wallet a
-> Update UnknownWallet DB a
```

but now we cannot use `zoomWallet`

for updates with a richer error type. A better solution is to take as an argument a function that allows us to *embed* the `UnknownWallet`

error into `e`

:

```
zoomWallet :: (UnknownWallet -> e)
-> WalletId
-> Update e Wallet a
-> Update e DB a
=
zoomWallet embedErr walletId k
zoomDef (at walletId)$ embedErr (UnknownWalletId walletId)) $
(throwError k
```

The definition is pleasantly straightforward. We use the `at`

combinator from `lens`

to give us a lens into the map, and then use `zoomDef`

with a fallback that throws the error to complete the definition.

### Composition

In order to show that our new combinators are compositional we should be able to define `zoomAccount`

in terms of `zoomWallet`

, and indeed we can:

```
zoomAccount :: (UnknownAcc -> e)
-> AccId
-> Update e Account a
-> Update e DB a
@(walletId, accIx) k =
zoomAccount embedErr accId. UnknownAccParent) walletId $
zoomWallet (embedErr
zoomDef (at accIx)$ embedErr (UnknownAccId accId)) $
(throwError k
```

Composing the zoom combinators is effectively lens composition, which is taking care of *getting* the account from the DB by first getting the account in one direction, and *updating* the DB by first lifting the update on the account to an update on the wallet, and then to an update on the DB itself.

The “embed error” argument is helping with compositionality also: `zoomAccount`

needs its `embedErr`

to embed `UnknownAcc`

into `e`

, but when it calls `zoomWallet`

it composes `embedErr`

with `UnknownAccParent`

to embed `UnknownWallet`

into `e`

.

The definition for address follows the exact same pattern:

```
zoomAddress :: (UnknownAddr -> e)
-> AddrId
-> Update e Address a
-> Update e DB a
@(accId, addrIx) k =
zoomAddress embedErr addrId. UnknownAddrParent) accId $
zoomAccount (embedErr
zoomDef (at addrIx)$ embedErr (UnknownAddrId addrId)) $
(throwError k
```

so that we can now write the definition we promised in the introduction:

```
setUnused :: AddrId -> Update UnknownAddr DB ()
=
setUnused addrId id addrId $
zoomAddress $ \(addr, _isUsed) -> (addr, False) modify
```

## Iteration

There is one additional zoom operator that is very useful to define. Suppose we want to clear out *all* wallets. If we tried to write this with the combinators we have so far, we would end up with something like

```
emptyAllWallets :: Update UnknownWallet DB ()
= do
emptyAllWallets <- gets Map.keys
walletIds $ \walletId ->
forM_ walletIds id walletId $
zoomWallet put Map.empty
```

We get all wallet IDs, then zoom to each wallet in turn and empty it. However, notice the signature: it indicates that `emptyAllWallets`

may throw a `UnknownWallet`

error—but it never will! After all, we just read all wallet IDs, so we know for a fact that they must be present. One “solution” is to do something like

```
emptyAllWallets :: Update e DB ()
= do
emptyAllWallets <- gets Map.keys
walletIds $ \walletId ->
forM_ walletIds -> error "can't happen") walletId $
zoomWallet (\_err put Map.empty
```

but we can do much better: we need a zoom operator that gives us iteration.

### Traversals

In the world of `lens`

, iteration is captured by a `Traversal'`

. Compare the synoynms:

```
type Lens' st st' = forall f. Functor f => (st' -> f st')
-> (st -> f st)
type Traversal' st st' = forall f. Applicative f => (st' -> f st')
-> (st -> f st)
```

A traversal will apply its argument to *all* occurrences of the smaller state; in order to patch the results back together it needs `f`

to be `Applicative`

rather than merely a `Functor`

.

`Applicative`

from `Biapplicative`

Remember that the `f`

we’re using in `Zoomable`

is the `Result z`

type family, which we know to be `Biapplicative`

. We showed above that we can easily derive `Functor`

from `Bifunctor`

; deriving `Applicative`

from `Biapplicative`

, however, is not so easy! Let’s see what we need to do:

```
instance Biapplicative p => Applicative (FromBi p a) where
pure st = WrapBi $ bipure _e st
<*> arg = WrapBi $ bimap _c ($) (unwrapBi fun)
fun <<*>> unwrapBi arg
```

There are two problematic holes in this definition:

- For
`pure`

we need to construct an`p a st`

from just a state`st`

; we need to construct an`_e :: a`

out of thin air. This corresponds to having no results at all. - For
`(<*>)`

we need a function`_c :: a -> a -> a`

that combines two results into a single one.

The usual solution to this problem is to require `a`

to be a monoid. Then we can use `mempty`

for the absence of a result, and `mappend`

to combine results:

```
instance ( Biapplicative p
Monoid a
,
)=> Applicative (FromBi p a) where
pure st = WrapBi $ bipure mempty st
<*> arg = WrapBi $ bimap mappend ($) (unwrapBi fun)
fun <<*>> unwrapBi arg
```

### Zooming

We can now define `zoomAllM`

:

```
zoomAllM :: (Zoomable z, Monoid a)
=> Traversal' st st' -> z st' a -> z st a
= wrap $ \st -> unwrapBi $ l (WrapBi . unwrap k) st zoomAllM l k
```

Apart from the signature, the body of this function is literally *identical* to `zoom`

, and is therefore *also* equivalent to simply `id`

. Mind-blowing stuff.

We can define two useful wrappers for `zoomAllM`

with slightly simpler types. The first is just a synoynm which can be used when we don’t want to accumulate any results:

```
zoomAll_ :: Zoomable z => Traversal' st st' -> z st' () -> z st ()
= zoomAllM zoomAll_
```

This works because `()`

is trivially a monoid. Finally we can define a wrapper that accumulates results in a list:

```
zoomAll :: Zoomable z => Traversal' st st' -> z st' a -> z st [a]
= wrap $ \st -> unwrapBi $
zoomAll l k WrapBi . first (:[]) . unwrap k) st l (
```

We could have defined `zoomAll`

in terms of `zoomAllM`

if we insist that `z st'`

is a `Functor`

; by unfolding the definition we can take advantage of the fact that `Result z`

is a bifunctor and we keep the signature clean.

### Usage example

The example function we were considering was one that cleared out all wallets. With our new combinators in hand, this is now trivial:

```
emptyAllWallets :: Update e DB ()
= zoomAll_ traverse $ put Map.empty emptyAllWallets
```

## Conclusions

As Haskell programmers, compositionality is one of our most treasured principles. The ability to build larger components from smaller, and reason about larger components by reasoning about the smaller, is crucial to productivity and clean, maintainable code. When dealing with large states (for example, in an acid-state database), lenses are a powerful tool that can be used to lift operations on parts of the state to the whole state. In this blog post we defined some reuseable combinators that can be used both in updates and in queries; they are used extensively in the design of the new Cardano wallet kernel.

#### Postscript: `zoom`

from `Control.Lens.Zoom`

The `lens`

library itself also defines a zoom operator. It has the same purpose as the zoom operator we defined here, but generalizes over the underlying monad in a different way (allowing for deeply nested occurrences of `StateT`

in a monad stack), and is not applicable to the reader monad (the equivalent for the reader monad is `magnify`

). However, if compatibility with `ReaderT`

is not required then it is also possible to define `zoom`

, `zoomDef`

, and `zoomAll`

in terms of the `lens`

operator; domain specific combinators like `zoomWallet`

can then be defined just like we have done here.